The domain registry process is shown below:
ICANN is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, a nonprofit organization that is responsible for managing internet protocols. Their main task is to preserve the stability of the internet.
Registry operators are responsible for processing and maintaining a top level domain (TLD). As an example, the registry operator of .com and .net extension is Verisign. A number of new TLDs such as .domains, .care, .email have been released by Donuts. They have to accept registration requests from the registrars, maintain the databases with contact information.
If you want to register a domain (then you, as end user are called a registrant) you first have to create an account at a registrar or a reseller. The registrar – which is an organization accredited by ICANN and processes the registering of domain names – checks in a database if the domain name is available. Some of the biggest registrars are GoDaddy, Namecheap, Network Solutions etc. In case it is, a Whois record is created with the domain owner, the registrant’s contact information. It is the responsibility of the registrant’s to renew the domain and keep contact information update.